Mogilev region is located in the east of the Republic of Belarus. The greatest extent from the north to the south is 150 km, from east to west - 300 km. The highest point of the region (239 m above sea level) is located near the railway station Temny Les (Dark Forest), the lowest point (126 m above sea level) - near the village of Gaishin by the river Sozh in Slavgorod district. The territory makes it, including city of Mogilev, 29 thousand sq. km (about 13.8% from the area of Belarus).
The landscapes of the region are various: picturesque hills of Mstislavl district give place to the low Central Berezina plain. Green forests in the south change into meadows and fields in the east of the region.
There are numerous construction materials fields (chalk, clay, sand, gravel) and several mineral water springs on the territory of the region. There is phosphorite along the river Sozh from Mstislavl to Krichev.
The region's river network is rather dense. The largest rivers are the Dnieper, the Beresina, the Sozh, the Svisloch, the Druts, the Pronya, the Ptich. There are very few lakes, the largest is Zaozerye with an area of 0.58 sq. km. There is Chigirinskoye reservoir on the river Drut with an area 21.1 sq. km.
The woods cover 35% of the area of the region. The highest forest density (up to 60%) is in Glusk, Bykhov, Osipovichi and Klichev districts. There are 2 preserves on the territory of the region:
Zaozerye hydrological preserve and Cherikov hunting preserve. The state forest fund equals 1092.9 thousand hectares. The general timber reserve volume is 165.83 million cubic m. The area occupied by forest masses and plantations of all kinds is 943.8 thousand hectares.
The surface of Mogilev region is mostly flat. The Orsha-Mogilev plain occupies the eastern part, while the western part is taken by the Central Berezina plain. The Orsha eminence is in the north-west, while the north-east of the region is located within the Gorki-Mstislavl plain and partly within the Smolensk eminence, which boasts the highest point of the region - 239 m above sea level. The prevailing altitude is 150-200 m above sea level, the lowest point is 126 m (at the bank of the river Sozh, near the village of Goishin, Slavgorod district).
Natural resources: cement chalk and marl (about 75% of total national resources of cement; Kommunarskoye, Sozhskoye, Kamenkovskoye, Varonkovskoe fields), phosphorite, chalk (the largest fields are in Krasnopolye, Kostyukovichi, Klimovichi, Krichev and Cherikov districts), clay, brick loam, sand and gravel materials, construction and silicate sand, tripoli, peat, sapropel.
The region enjoys temperate continental climate. Winters here are mild and summers are warm. The January's average temperature goes from minus 8.2 C in the north-east to minus 6.5 C in the south-west. The July's average temperature fluctuates from plus 17.8 C in the north-east to plus 18.7 C in the south-west. The vegetative period is 183-194 days. Precipitation equals 575-675 mm a year. 70% of all precipitation falls during the warm weather period (April-October).
The territory of Mogilev region belongs to the basin of the Dnieper, which crosses the region from the north to the south. Its largest tributaries are the Lakhva, the Drut, the Berezina (right-hand), the Sozh (left-hand). The biggest tributaries of the Berzina are the Svisloch, the Olsa, the Ala; of the Drut - the Oslik, the Vabich, the Greza; of the Sozh - the Lobzhanka, the Volches, the Pronya with the Basya and the Rasta, the Besed with the Surov and the Zhedunka. The river Ptich (the Pripyat's tributary) flows is the south-west. There are very few lakes, they are not very big.
Agricultural land is sod-podzol (53.5%), sod-podzol marsh (23.7%), peatbog (8.3%), water-meadow. The soil texture is mostly loamy (45.9%) and sandy (38.7%). About 15% of agricultural land is drained, mainly in Bykhov, Bobruisk, Glusk, Osipovichi and Gorki districts.
Forests occupy about 34% of the territory, 54.9% of which are coniferous woods, 15.1% each - fir tree and birch woods, 5.6% - alder and 5.4% - oak forests. The biggest forest density is in the south-west, over 50% in some districts. Meadows make up 17.6% of the territory, half of them are low-lying. 7.7% of the surface is taken up by lowland marshes, most of them are drained. The national hydrological preserves Zaozerye and Ostrova Duleby and 72 local preserves are located on the territory of the region.